The science of Fuel Matrix

Introduction

Burning gasoline, diesel or other hydrocarbon fuels in a combustion engine is an imperfect reaction. Without enough oxygen, all potential energy in the fuel is not released. Incomplete combustion uses more fuel than necessary and results in unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Also, the heat of the endothermic combustion reaction causes oxygen to bond with nitrogen from the air thus creating harmful NOx emissions. For over 100 years, chemists and engineers have sought ways to get fuels to burn more completely, including by adding “oxygenates” to introduce oxygen directly into fuel.

Fuel Matrix represents a breakthrough in bonding hydrocarbon molecules with oxygen molecules from the air and in improving combustion far beyond oxygenates. In independent, third party tests, Fuel Matrix has increased the efficiency of combustion engines by an average of 15% while reducing certain emissions such as NOX by over 80%. Fuel Matrix is extremely potent and can be mixed with fuel in central fueling reservoirs or added directly to fuel tanks in dilute ratios (1:10,000 for gasoline or diesel).

Due to its innovative manufacturing process, Fuel Matrix is different from all other fuel additive technologies on the market. The Fuel Matrix, LLC has been awarded two US patents covering its product’s novel chemistry and usage, and has filed for additional patents worldwide. Fuel Matrix is available for sale to fleets,corporate customers and fuel blenders in small to large volumes, is simple to use with no additional equipment required and is priced to give customers significant operating cost savings and return on investment.

How Fuel Matrix Works

All molecules exhibit varying degrees of electromagnetic properties. A molecule’s “dipole” is the measure of electrical forces that affect its attraction to or repulsion from other molecules. Some molecules have strong dipoles, meaning the molecule exhibits a relatively high electric potential between two oppositely charged points (poles) on the molecule, and others have relatively weak dipoles. The strong or weak dipoles of a molecule may be permanent or they may be temporary (instantaneous dipoles).

Together, these electromagnetic charges manifest themselves as inter-molecular forces which hold molecules together or dispersion forces (also called“London Forces”) which separate and scatter molecules. Fuel Matrix exploits the fact that altering the permanent dipole of a hydrocarbon molecule will alter its inter-molecular and dispersion forces vis-à-vis other molecules such as oxygen. The chemistry is relatively simple, but until now nobody had figured out how to alter a permanent dipole of a hydrocarbon molecule cost effectively.

How Fuel Matrix is made

Fuel Matrix is created by dissolving a mineral solute containing ions with a permanent charge in an ethanol-water solvent. The resultant ion solution is then charged with an electromagnetic wave. During this process, the charged particles of the ions become contained within an inclusion complex of ethanol and water. The modified product has a permanent dipole that is significantly stronger than the dipole that which was present in the ion solution prior to electromagnetic charge.

When Fuel Matrix is dissolved in a fuel, the stronger permanent dipoles change both the dispersion forces and the intermolecular forces of hydrocarbons in the treated fuel. As a result, when the treated fuel is atomized in a combustion chamber, it is able to dissolve higher concentrations of oxygen from the air and thereby provide a more efficient fuel combustion.

Fuel Matrix Mechanism of Action

Air comprises approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and trace amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, argon, and various other components. When fuel is mixed with air in a combustion chamber, two major combinations occur: mixing with oxygen and mixing with nitrogen. Oxygen and nitrogen have significantly different dispersion forces. In the gaseous state of air, these are not critical and oxygen and nitrogen are homogeneously mixed, but in the liquid fuel phase IMFs start playing leading role.

The process of fuel - air mixing can be considered as the dissolution of oxygen and nitrogen (the solutes) into fuel hydrocarbons (the solvent). In fuels not treated with Fuel Matrix, the dispersion forces between the hydrocarbon molecules are different from the ones between oxygen-oxygen molecules and as a result, oxygen is repelled. However, when hydrocarbons are mixed with Fuel Matrix, they become a better solvent for oxygen from the air and form a well homogenized fuel-oxygen mixture.

The additional oxygenation, homogenization, and atomization of fuel treated with Fuel Matrix come from changes in polarity due to electro-magnetic interactions between fuel-air oxygen molecules in fuels activated by Fuel Matrix. As a result of newly similar dispersion forces between fuel and oxygen, oxygen molecules are no longer repelled by hydrocarbons but rather are evenly distributed and bonded with fuel molecules.

Both Proof and Benefit - NOx Formation Decrease

One important and unwanted side effect of combustion is NOx formation (N2 +XO2 = 2NOx). This endothermic reaction requires heat, as the nitrogen molecule is stable and takes 946 kJ/mole to break the nitrogen’s triple bond. It would seem that the more oxygenated fuel is, the more efficient the combustion, therefore the greater the heat released. This should lead to greater NOx formation. Nevertheless, fuels treated with Fuel Matrix show a dramatic decrease in NOx formation despite being well oxygenated (a study by the University of California Riverside’s Center forEnvironmental Research and Technology reported a 59% decrease in NOx formation). This anti-intuitive emissions benefit exhibits how Fuel Matrix works to improve combustion.

The rate of the NOx formation reaction depends both on temperature and the concentration of the reagents (N2 and O2). For temperature, fuel treated with FuelMatrix dissolves more oxygen so the combustion process is more efficient in comparison with un-treated fuel. This means that less fuel can be burned to produce the same amount of work and the overall increase in combustion temperature is moderate.

For the effective concentration of the nitrogen (N2), the dispersion forces of hydrocarbon molecules treated with Fuel Matrix come close to the dispersion forces of the oxygen which are much stronger than dispersion forces of nitrogen. That means that more oxygen from the air is homogenized and dissolved in the fuel while nitrogen molecules are forced out of the solution.

In this case, hydrocarbon molecules basically separate oxygen from nitrogen by competing for the dispersion bonding with paramagnetic oxygen molecules. An overall result of this process is a significantly decreased number of nitrogen molecules colliding with oxygen molecules, and even fewer have the energy sufficient to overcome the activation barrier of NOx formation. The modest increase in the heat of combustion cannot compensate the significant lost in the number of oxygen/nitrogen collisions. That is why the overall effect of Fuel Matrix on the NOx formation is a significant decrease.

Summary

Fuel Matrix changes the dispersion forces and IMFs of hydrocarbon molecules. As a result, fuel treated with Fuel Matrix dissolves higher concentrations of oxygen from the air and enjoys more efficient combustion. Fuel Matrix works with all liquid hydrocarbon fuels (gasoline, diesel, bunker fuel, jet fuel, etc.) delivering dramatic fuel efficiency improvements and harmful emissions reductions.

Additional Q&A

As described above, Fuel Matrix changes the dispersion forces and increases both the total energy released during the combustion process and the useful energy/work performed. Combustion efficiency is improved due to three factors: 1) a decrease in the combustion activation energy barrier, 2) a decrease in the unwanted endothermic reactions such as NOx formation, 3) an increase in the fuel’s own lubricity which in turn reduces friction in the engine. Together, these factors lead to more complete combustion enabling less fuel to provide the same amount of work. Click the link below for questions and answers that help explain the mechanism of action that Fuel Matrix stimulates in greater detail. However, it is important to note that the significant IP behind Fuel Matrix, does not revolve around the benefits of polarizing fuel but rather revolves around the method for inducing and maintaining polarization in fuel so that combustion is more complete and efficient.

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